While chrysotile has been commonly used by Chinese textile industry for many years, investigations on the association of chrysotile exposure with risk of mesothelioma in China are scarce. We conducted a case-control study in a county located at Southeastern China, including 46 cases and 230 individually matched controls. A semi-quantitative method based on experts’ assessment was used for evaluating hand-spinning chrysotile exposure. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of asbestos exposure with risk of mesothelioma. We found that hand-spinning chrysotile exposure was associated with significantly elevated risk of mesothelioma, reaching OR =10 [95% CIs): 1.4-65] for possible exposure and 64 (12-328) for definite exposure. Our data suggested a dose-response relationship of chrysotile exposure duration with risk of mesothelioma, reaching 28 (6-134) for 28.6 f/ml-years. We found a dose-response relationship of chrysotile exposure duration and CEI with risk of mesothelioma in Southeastern China, adding valuable information on health hazards of chrysotile exposure in China where chrysotile is still used nationwide.
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