Surgery is one of the steps of multimodality approach for the treatment of MPM. Due to anatomical features, microscopically radical (R0) resection is never possible and a Macroscopic Complete Resection (R1) is considered the target for mesothelioma surgeons. Recently, intracavitary therapies have been described with the aim of extending the loco-regional effect of surgery. Different agents might be administered intrapleurally: chemotherapy drugs are the most widely used, but also photodynamic therapy (PDT) showed to lead to satisfactory long-term outcomes; furthermore, immunotherapies and gene therapies have been also reported. Despite promising results, no high-quality evidences are currently available and controlled randomized trials are required to establish the exact role of intracavitary therapies and to standardize the technique.
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